It was an concept born from the tropical desperation of three American associates who had moved to French Polynesia on a whim in 1959.
Their first plan there — to run a vanilla farm — had fallen via, so that they resolved to attempt the lodge enterprise. Tourism was nascent, and worldwide customer numbers had begun to develop after a brand new airport opened on the most important island, Tahiti. The three males — Jay Carlisle, a stockbroker; Hugh Kelley, a lawyer; and Donald McCallum, a salesman — purchased a few properties to show into funky lodges they referred to as the Bali Hai. One was on the island of Ra’iatea.
“It was a little five-room property, on the lagoon, with the reef right in front of it,” Mr. Carlisle, who’s 86 and the group’s final surviving member, recalled in a latest phone interview. But there was a draw back. “There was no beach.”
From left, Hugh Kelley, Jay Carlisle and Donald McCallum, the Americans who developed the overwater idea, in an undated .Credit…Jay Carlisle
His pal Mr. Kelley had an concept: Why not construct a couple of rooms that sat instantly above the lagoon, on piles, joined to the land by a walkway that was set a couple of ft above the water, too? They constructed three to begin, charging $30 per evening per couple. The oddball concept turned an prompt phenomenon: Now often called an overwater bungalow, the design turned the lodge’s signature element and helped set up French Polynesia as a tropical getaway.
When requested about the bungalows’ attraction, Mr. Carlisle supplied some colourful tales. “An old girlfriend of mine said to me, ‘Can you imagine making love in one?’” he mentioned. “It’s so hard to imagine how romantic it is.” Guests may snorkel straight from their room, and even sit inside and observe teeming fish via low, glass-topped espresso tables positioned over cutouts in the ground. Mr. Carlisle recalled a pair from California who would even include rod and sort out and spend their trip fishing from their room; the husband would distribute the day’s catch amongst the lodge’s workers.
In the six many years since, Mr. Kelley’s conceit has unfold worldwide. As of May, in response to overwaterbungalows.internet, there are 225 resorts with the function, and a complete of eight,389 overwater rooms out there for reserving.
A majority — 132, or nearly 60 % — of those lodge properties are in the Maldives, which has co-opted the Tahitian invention as a signature luxurious. Overwater lodging can be a function of resorts in Europe — like the Stella Island Luxury Resort and Spa on Crete in Greece — and in Africa, the place the architect Jean-Marc Eynaud has tailored the idea for a 60-acre resort on the east coast of Mauritius.
Only 5 years in the past, Sandals Resort was in a position to construct a cluster of overwater bungalows at its property in Montego Bay, Jamaica, and now many different websites throughout the Caribbean and Mexico have replicated the idea.
The concept has additionally influenced residential structure: mansions engineered to hover over synthetic water options, like a shallow pond, or the developments which are usually bolted onto luxurious lodges.
The idea, nevertheless, is just not with out critics. The overwater location makes these buildings weak to hurricanes, whereas robust tidal methods pose engineering challenges for any construction sitting at a set degree. For Mr. Carlisle and his companions, collectively often called the Bali Hai Boys, the biggest such downside was waste disposal: Fortunately, Mr. Kelley devised a particular septic system, tucked beneath the overwater walkway, that piped sewage away from the clear lagoon water.
There are additionally considerations about environmental impression. Overwater development entails driving massive concrete piles into the ocean ground, although Mr. Carlisle and his companions discovered that coral shortly colonized their very own lodge’s underpinnings. Critics additionally say that the shade these buildings forged can disrupt fish’s instinctual behaviors, like migration. As these dwellings have begun proliferating in the Caribbean, governments have been eager to introduce stringent controls on their dimension and scope.
Vaihiria Kelley, Mr. Kelley’s daughter, mentioned her father and his associates additionally needed to cope with cultural opposition.
“The big argument was that it wasn’t part of the normal landscape for Tahiti,” she mentioned. “But on the island of Huahine, fishermen used rudimentary huts, built over the water, to stay overnight when they were fishing.” Her father and his companions “won approval because of that,” she added.
The unique Bali Hai lodge, set atop the waters of a lagoon in French Polynesia, in 1980.Credit…Bertrand Laforet/Gamma-Rapho, through Getty Images
Indeed, huts on stilts will not be distinctive to French Polynesia. Some of the best examples, often called fish homes, had been in-built the early 20th century in Pine Island Sound, Fla., the place they had been largely manner stations for industrial fisherman to type and retailer their catch. A handful stay, together with one as soon as owned by the artist Robert Rauschenberg.
“The scale of it is very intimate — it’s tiny, almost a hybrid between a craftsman home and a boat — yet you have a 360-degree view from the porch,” mentioned Claire Weisz of WXY, an structure and city design studio in New York City, who’s supervising the property’s restoration. Although Rauschenberg’s residence, now operated by his basis, was in-built 1942, Ms. Weisz mentioned its situation was surprisingly good after weathering hurricanes and rises in sea degree. Built by carpenters whose specialty was overwater development, it has spaced-apart piles that permit wind and water to cross via harmlessly.
Recently, builders have co-opted the overwater concept for even landlocked mansions, like the $25 million, 11,000-square-foot residence in Santa Monica, Calif, at the moment being constructed for Ira and Alice Rosenberg, a pair who turned to growth after retiring from the garment enterprise. A bridge will likely be required to enter the home, which is being engineered as if it had been floating over a water-filled courtyard.
At the Rosewood Mayakoba resort, on the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, a full group of residences consists of villas with terraces that challenge over a lagoon at the coronary heart of the growth’s 620-acre nature protect.
But nothing comes near the four- and five-bedroom Floating Seahorse properties in Dubai, which every price 20 million euros (about $24.four million). They kind a part of the synthetic archipelago often called the World, simply off the coast, close to Palm Jumeirah. Each gives residents the probability to dwell not simply over water, but below it, too, as two of the bedrooms are under the floor.
Josef Kleindienst, chairman of the Kleindienst Group, the challenge’s developer, mentioned the concept for these properties got here from his dedication to discover the waters, although he fears ocean swimming. He mentioned 72 of the deliberate 133 villas had already been bought, regardless of the dangerous publicity that arose when a stand-alone platform the firm offered for a New Year’s get together in 2017 sank a number of days after the occasion, when the construction was empty.
“The platform was designed for waves up to five feet, and, unfortunately, they came up to eight,” Mr. Kleindienst mentioned. “The platform could not take it, but if a Floating Seahorse had been anchored in the same place, it would not have sunk, because it’s technically more advanced.”
The agency has finessed the design since the first prototype, a steel-hulled residence that includes cables that tethered it in place, very like a moored barge. Problems with native permits for such vessels prompted Mr. Kleindienst to adapt the idea right into a completely anchored construction. To decrease its environmental impression, he changed the metal with a water-safe concrete combine.
He mentioned coral may flourish on the concrete, and he was even seeding the ocean ground with child corals farmed in his agency’s personal nursery close by. Next, he intends to deploy the identical expertise on a extra formidable challenge: a whole floating lodge elsewhere on the synthetic archipelago. Mr. Kleindienst warned that this constructing would in all probability not be prepared for a minimum of 5 years due to engineering challenges.
It will likely be a becoming monument to overwater bungalows that first appeared in a Tahitian setting. Mr. Kelley’s daughter fondly recalled the unique lodge, which has since closed, from her childhood.
“You could remove the top of the coffee table and actually feed the fish underneath,” she mentioned. “It was especially amazing at night, because there were lights under the bungalow, which attracted them even more.” Think of that as Tahitian tv, her father advised her.
Ms. Kelley mentioned he could be impressed by the attain of his invention now.
“Part of me feels so proud that they’re all over the world,” she mentioned, “but part of me think it’s too bad that it’s mostly unknown they were his idea. I just wish he would have more recognition for putting them on the map,” she added, pausing. “It’s bittersweet.”