A French Teenager’s Anti-Islam Rant Unleashed Death Threats. Now 13 Are on Trial.

PARIS — The French lady, 16, was sharing extremely private particulars about her life in a livestream on Instagram, together with her attraction to girls. Just not Black or Arab girls, she mentioned.

When insults and dying threats began pouring in to her Instagram account in response to her feedback in January 2020, some from viewers saying she was an affront to Islam, , Mila, dug in, rapidly posting one other video.

“I hate religion,” she declared. “The Quran is a religion of hatred.” She additionally used profanity to explain Islam and the crudest of images in referring to God.

The ensuing onslaught of threats after the video went viral has landed 13 individuals in courtroom on costs of on-line harassment.

The case has put a highlight on the roiling French debate over freedom of expression and blasphemy, particularly when it touches on Islam. It can be a landmark take a look at for latest laws that broadens France’s definition of cyberharassment with regard to assaults on the web, the place vitriol is plentiful, modulated debate much less so.

“We are setting the rules of what is acceptable and what is unacceptable,” Michaël Humbert, the presiding decide, mentioned on the trial.

Some regarded to historical past to seize the brutality of what Mila skilled on-line. Mila’s lawyer mentioned she had been subjected to a digital stoning. The prosecutor within the case spoke of a “lynching 2.0.”

More than a yr after Mila — The New York Times is withholding her final identify as a result of she has been the topic of harassment — posted her movies, her life stays in a tumult. She lives below police safety and she or he now not attends college in particular person.

The 13 defendants, some youngsters themselves, are on trial in Paris, most accused of constructing dying threats. They face the potential for jail. The verdict is predicted Wednesday.

Most of the defendants have expressed regrets concerning the tone of their on-line feedback — however the case has taken on a lifetime of its personal.

It has laid naked the deep polarization in French society over free speech within the wake of the terrorist assaults on Charlie Hebdo, the satirical newspaper that revealed cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, and the decapitation final yr of a instructor who confirmed related cartoons throughout a category dialogue on freedom of expression.

Some of the defendants mentioned they’d no intention of harassing or threatening Mila. They have been merely joking, venting or attempting to draw followers, they mentioned.

But most of the feedback have been vitriolic within the excessive. The trial solely considerations messages despatched in November, after Mila posted one other video that described her continuous on-line harassment — and repeated a few of her personal crude imagery, which set off a flood of latest digital assaults.

When the presiding decide learn a few of them out loud at trial, they elicited gasps.

One, from an 18-year-old feminine psychology pupil named N’Aissita, mentioned: “It would be a real pleasure to lacerate your body with my nicest knife and leave it to rot in the woods.” Another, from a 19-year-old aspiring customs officer named Adam, mentioned: “Someone is going to come to your home, someone is going to tie you up and torture you.”

(A courtroom official refused to totally determine the defendants to The Times; it is not uncommon in France, particularly in circumstances involving the younger, to not publish the names of defendants if they don’t seem to be public figures.)

Mila has mentioned repeatedly that she doesn’t need to be co-opted by politicians of any ideology. But many conservatives have championed her trigger, and she or he says she feels deserted by feminist and L.G.B.T.Q. advocacy teams, accusing them of being afraid to defend her proper to criticize religions for worry of offending Muslims.

“I am abandoned by a fragile and cowardly nation,” she mentioned.

For Mila’s defenders, the virulence directed towards her reveals that France’s mannequin of secularism and freedom of expression are below assault.

“We have gone mad,” President Emmanuel Macron mentioned in an interview final yr when requested about Mila. In France, he mentioned, any faith will be criticized, “and we must not tolerate any violence because of that criticism.”

Mr. Macron himself has been on the heart of the fraught tug of warfare over French values and its remedy of its Muslim residents. He has vowed to defeat what he has referred to as Islamist “separatism” or the undermining of France’s values of secularism and freedom of expression. Several terrorist assaults over the previous yr have hardened sentiment in French society over extremists in its midst, elevating fears amongst some French Muslims of being unfairly stigmatized.

In a tv interview a number of weeks after her first video, Mila mentioned that she had been concentrating on Islam as a faith, not those that apply it in peace, and she or he apologized if she had damage these individuals together with her feedback.

That is a vital distinction in France, which criminalizes some hate speech however doesn’t outlaw blasphemy. The legislation differentiates between mocking a faith and denigrating its believers. On that foundation, prosecutors rapidly dropped an investigation they’d opened towards Mila on suspicion of incitement of racial hatred.

Instead, the police opened an investigation into those that went after her on-line, primarily based on the cyberharassment legislation handed in 2018. The legislation allows prosecutors to hunt convictions towards harassers who knew they have been contributing to a broader wave of abuse, even when they didn’t coordinate with one another and even when they posted or despatched just one remark.

In a not too long ago revealed guide, Mila walked again a few of her regrets, saying that on the time of the tv interview she was determined to calm the state of affairs down however that she shouldn’t need to apologize for legally utilizing her free speech.

The defendants have been charged with on-line harassment, which carries a sentence of as much as two years in jail and a effective of 30,000 euros, or practically $36,000. Those charged with making dying threats withstand three years in jail and a €45,000 effective.

The protection legal professionals requested why these 13 have been chosen, when hundreds of individuals attacked Mila on-line.

The prosecutor has mentioned he expects to carry others to account, as nicely.

“Social media is not a lawless Wild West,” mentioned the prosecutor, Grégory Weill, who heads a brand new workplace dealing with on-line hate speech and harassment round France.

Still, Mr. Weill requested solely quick suspended jail sentences for 12 of the accused, all of whom have been first offenders. (He really helpful costs towards the 13th be dropped.) The courtroom might be extra extreme in any sentences it imposes.

A demonstration in Paris final yr after the killing of Samuel Paty, a instructor who confirmed caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad in a classroom lesson on free expression.Credit…Dmitry Kostyukov for The New York Times

Over two lengthy days final month, the case towards the 13 unfolded earlier than a packed courtroom.

Mila’s mom mentioned her daughter had skilled an infinite “tsunami” of messages, inflicting nightmares, despair and trauma. Mila pushed again forcefully towards critics, but in addition teared up.

“I feel like I constantly have lines of knives in my back,” she testified.

She rejected ideas that she ought to stop social media, the place she nonetheless clashes with critics but in addition posts typical teenager content material, like movies of herself lip-syncing songs.

“I see this like a woman who was raped in the street and who is told not to go out anymore so that she isn’t raped again,” Mila mentioned. She added that she disliked all religions, not simply Islam.

Richard Malka, Mila’s lawyer, castigated the defendants as being fast to really feel offended however gradual to comprehend the results of their actions.

“You made her radioactive, all of you,” Mr. Malka mentioned. “You sentenced her to solitude.”

Although some defendants mentioned they have been Muslim, quite a lot of them declared they have been atheists. Some mentioned Mila’s feedback angered them as a result of they’d Muslim buddies or discovered her movies disrespectful, main them to behave with out pondering.

A mosque in Ivry-sur-Seine, close to Paris, final yr. Some French Muslims worry they’re being unfairly stigmatized.Credit…Dmitry Kostyukov for The New York Times

“I reacted in the heat of the moment,” Axel, a 20-year-old from southwestern France, advised the courtroom. “I don’t pay attention to religion, but all religions should be equal and respected.”

One of the accused, Corentin, a 23-year-old college monitor, mentioned he couldn’t fathom spiritual intolerance. In his Twitter publish, which included a want that Mila would die, Corentin mentioned he ran no danger of prosecution as a result of he’s “white and a nonbeliever.”

And when Mila’s lawyer argued that religions should not owed any respect and that respecting spiritual beliefs “leads to horrors,” N’Aissita, the psychology pupil who wrote about knifing Mila, demurred.

“If religious beliefs had been respected, we wouldn’t be here,” she retorted.