Officially, the pandemic recession lasted only two months.

The pandemic recession is formally over.

In truth, it has been over for greater than a yr.

The National Bureau of Economic Research, the semiofficial arbiter of U.S. enterprise cycles, stated Monday that the recession had resulted in April 2020, after a mere two months. That makes it by far the shortest contraction on report — so quick that by June 2020, when the bureau formally decided recession had begun, it had been over for two months. (The earlier shortest recession on report, in 1980, lasted six months.)

But whereas the 2020 recession was quick, it was unusually extreme. Employers minimize 22 million jobs in March and April, and the unemployment charge hit 14.eight p.c, the worst degree since the Great Depression. Gross home product fell by greater than 10 p.c.

The finish of the recession doesn’t imply that the economic system has healed. The United States has practically seven million fewer jobs than earlier than the pandemic, and whereas G.D.P. has almost certainly returned to its prepandemic degree, 1000’s of companies have failed, and thousands and thousands of people are nonetheless struggling to get again on their ft.

To economists, nonetheless, recessions aren’t merely durations of economic hardship. They are durations of financial contraction, as measured by employment, revenue, manufacturing and different indicators. Once progress resumes, the recession is over, regardless of how deep a gap stays. The recession that accompanied the 2008 monetary disaster, for instance, resulted in June 2009 — 4 months earlier than the unemployment charge hit its peak, and years earlier than many Americans started to expertise a significant rebound.

The uncommon nature of the pandemic-induced financial collapse challenged the conventional idea of a “recession.” The National Bureau of Economic Research defines a recession as “a significant decline in economic activity that is spread across the economy and that lasts more than a few months.” Taken actually, the newest downturn fails that take a look at — the recession lasted mere weeks. But the bureau’s Business Cycle Dating Committee determined that the contraction ought to rely nonetheless.

“The committee concluded that the unprecedented magnitude of the decline in employment and production, and its broad reach across the entire economy, warranted the designation of this episode as a recession, even though the downturn was briefer than earlier contractions,” the committee stated in an announcement.