TOKYO — Under crisp blue skies in October 1964, Emperor Hirohito of Japan stood earlier than a reborn nation to declare the opening of the Tokyo Olympic Games. A voice that the Japanese public had first heard asserting the nation’s give up in World War II now echoed throughout a packed stadium alive with anticipation.
On Friday, Tokyo will inaugurate one other Summer Olympics, after a yr’s delay due to the coronavirus pandemic. Hirohito’s grandson, Emperor Naruhito, will likely be in the stands for the opening ceremony, however will probably be barred to spectators as an anxious nation grapples with yet one more wave of infections.
For each Japan and the Olympic motion, the delayed 2020 Games could characterize much less a second of hope for the longer term than the distinct chance of decline. And to the era of Japanese who look again fondly on the 1964 Games, the prospect of a diminished, largely unwelcome Olympics is a grave disappointment.
“Everyone in Japan was burning with excitement about the Games,” mentioned Kazuo Inoue, 69, who vividly remembers being glued to the brand new shade tv in his household’s house in Tokyo in 1964. “That is missing, so that is a little sad.”
Yet the ennui is not only a matter of pandemic chaos and the quite a few scandals in the prelude to the Games. The nation right now, and what the Olympics characterize for it, are vastly totally different from what they have been 57 years in the past.
Tokyo’s new National Stadium, appear from the statement stage of a skyscraper.Credit…Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times
The 1964 Olympics confirmed the world that Japan had recovered from the devastation of the warfare and rebuilt itself as a fashionable, peaceable democracy after an period of army aggression. Highways and the bullet prepare have been rushed to completion. With incomes rising, many Japanese households like Mr. Inoue’s purchased televisions to watch the Games, the primary to be broadcast dwell by satellite tv for pc across the globe.
This time round, Japan is a mature, prosperous nation. But its financial system has been stagnant for a lot of the previous three a long time, leaving rising numbers of individuals behind. One in seven kids dwell in poverty, and plenty of staff are in contract or part-time jobs that lack stability and pay few advantages.
It is a a lot older nation now, too. When Hirohito opened the Summer Games, simply 6 % of the inhabitants was 65 or older. Today, the determine is greater than 28 %, and the fertility price is sort of half that of 1964. The inhabitants has been shrinking since 2008.
Aerial picture, Yoyogi National Gymnasium circa September 1964 in Tokyo, Japan.Credit…The Asahi Shimbun, through Getty ImagesYoyogi National Stadium, July 15, 2021.Credit…Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times
The 1964 Tokyo Olympics are sometimes considered the purpose when Japan pivoted into prosperity. Within 4 years, Japan grew to become the world’s second-largest financial system, behind the United States, its former occupier. (It has since fallen to third, behind China.) As many Japanese entered the center class, they purchased not simply televisions, however different fashionable home equipment like washing machines, fridges and vacuum cleaners.
Japan is once more approaching a turning level, one whose end result is determined by how the federal government, companies and civil society reply to a shrinking and growing old inhabitants.
Back in 1964, there was “a sense of Japan in motion and a sense of a country with a future,” mentioned Hiromu Nagahara, an affiliate professor of historical past on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Now, it’s “a country that has lost confidence and a country whose political elites feel very intensely that loss of confidence.”
Emperor Hirohito of Japan (middle) giving a speech on the opening of the Summer Olympic video games in entrance of 18,000 spectators in Tokyo on October 11, 1964.Credit…Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone, through Getty Images
Longtime observers of Japan say it ought to revise some sclerotic practices and cultural norms. While the nation’s rise as an industrial powerhouse was constructed on robust social cohesion, that side of society has tended to repress girls, ethnic minorities and different teams that don’t conform to conventional expectations.
“Japan’s strengths are clear — it’s the social fabric,” mentioned Carol Gluck, a historian of recent Japan at Columbia University. “But that can become a weakness if it makes it hard to effect change.”
“There’s a lot of potential there,” Professor Gluck added. “But the question is, will it be grasped and realized before things get so bad.”
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With the worldwide highlight on Japan for the Olympics, lots of its societal warts have been uncovered.
Tokyo Big Sight, the Media Press Center, in Tokyo, Japan.Credit…Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times
In February, the president of the Tokyo organizing committee, Yoshiro Mori, 84, was compelled to resign after saying that girls talked an excessive amount of in conferences, although not earlier than he acquired a staunch protection from traditionalists. In a nation that ranks 120th out of 156 nations in a gender hole rating, many Japanese girls acknowledged his feedback as reflecting all-too-familiar attitudes.
Despite stress from activists to seize the Olympic second to advance homosexual and transgender rights in Japan, a modest invoice labeling discrimination “unacceptable” failed to even get a listening to in the conservative Parliament. And this week, a composer for the opening ceremony resigned after it emerged that he had confessed to severely bullying disabled classmates in faculty. The Japanese Education Ministry calls bullying one of many largest social challenges in lecture rooms.
When Tokyo bid for the 2020 Games, the prime minister on the time, Shinzo Abe, framed it as a image of conquer a devastating earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe in 2011. That message has been overtaken by a new narrative: that the Games characterize a world effort to overcome the pandemic.
The inside of Nippon Budokan in Chiyoda ward in Tokyo.Credit…Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times
The Japanese individuals, who principally oppose holding the Games, aren’t shopping for both message. The nuclear cleanup is much from full, and the Games are being held amid a state of emergency as coronavirus instances have reached a six-month excessive in Tokyo. Those will increase have been compounded by day by day bulletins of constructive instances in the Olympic Village, reminding everybody of the enduring energy of the virus.
And with spectators barred from all however a few occasions, there’s little upside for resorts, eating places, retailers and different companies.
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“I feel sorry for the tourism business or hotels,” mentioned Ikuzo Tamura, 84, who bought commemorative fabric wraps in the Olympic Stadium in 1964. “They don’t have the same opportunity as we did. I don’t think someone should be blamed, but in this situation, people have no choice but to endure.”
At this level, Japan’s finest hope could also be to showcase its disaster administration expertise by pulling off the occasions with none large-scale outbreaks.
“Whether you agree or not with the Japanese government, these Games are going ahead with a very high degree of risk,” mentioned Roy Tomizawa, writer of “1964: The Greatest Year in the History of Japan.”
“It’s like Simone Biles attempting a double pike, a move that no other woman will do except for Simone Biles,” he added. “I don’t know how many countries would have gone ahead with this.”
The exterior of Nippon Budokan in Chiyoda ward in Tokyo.Credit…Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times
Historians level out that the 1964 Games didn’t go in addition to gauzy-eyed residents may recall. Two prime officers resigned amid public criticism of Japan’s determination to ship a group to the 1962 Asian Games, whose host nation, Indonesia, excluded athletes from Israel and Taiwan, mentioned Yuji Ishizaka, a sports activities sociologist at Nara Women’s University. And up to a yr earlier than the 1964 Olympics, solely about half of the general public supported internet hosting the Games.
Still, the hope of any Olympics is that, as soon as the Games begin, the athletic competitors comes to the fore. What individuals bear in mind finest from 1964 is the victory of the Japanese girls’s volleyball group, a group of manufacturing unit staff who snatched the gold medal from the Russians; or the lads’s gymnastics group, which received a group gold medal, turning into heroes.
This yr, even with out dwell audiences, the drama will nonetheless be current and televised. But will probably be tempered.
“For athletes, for me, having spectators gives you so much power,” mentioned Shuji Tsurumi, 83, a gymnast on the 1964 group who additionally received three particular person silver medals.
Shuji Tsurumi, a former Olympic gymnast, holding one among three silver medals he received in Tokyo in 1964, as a member of the Japanese squad that received a group gold.Credit…Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times
“You have to feel the athlete’s breath on your skin, the air in the stadium, the tension of the others around you waiting for a successful landing,” he added. “Without that, it’s not the same.”
Yoshiko Kanda, a member of the victorious volleyball group in 1964, mentioned that the group’s cheers have been “the biggest reminder of why I was competing.”
“Without this feeling in the air, I bet many athletes are struggling,” mentioned Ms. Kanda, 79, who competed below her single title, Matsumura. “In 1964, the environment, the air, the feeling in society was burning with excitement,” she added. “Compared to the ’64 Olympics, it will be so lonely.”