The historical past of classical music within the United States is one lengthy identification disaster: the seek for a homegrown sound, free from European affect. That nervousness has manifested itself repeatedly as self-sabotage, with some composers — nearly at all times white males — exalted as pathbreakers, whereas actually authentic work coming from artists of shade has been ignored.
That has modified lately: in suits and begins, then all of a sudden, with the wave of Black Lives Matter demonstrations within the wake of George Floyd’s homicide. Classical establishments en masse have made earnest, if generally clumsy, efforts to rise to the second and grant overdue consideration to the marginalized composers who’ve at all times had solutions to the query of America’s musical identification.
One composer the sector has particularly turned to is Jessie Montgomery, whose usually private but extensively resonant music — solid in Manhattan, a mirror turned on the entire nation — can be tough to overlook within the coming season.
The variety of instances Montgomery’s orchestral works had been programmed greater than doubled annually from 2017 to 2020, mentioned Philip Rothman, her publishing agent. (And that’s only a nook of her output.) Several years in the past, that quantity was about 20; in 2021, it’s anticipated to be almost 400, together with on the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra and the Minnesota Orchestra. And her calendar is booked with commissions far into the long run, together with because the Chicago Symphony Orchestra’s new composer in residence.
Some of the highlight on Montgomery is a product of pandemic restrictions; many ensembles have made cautious comebacks with small-scale items for strings, that are the guts of her physique of labor. But her swift rise to prominence can be the results of orchestras overhauling their repertoires to extra prominently characteristic composers of shade — an achievement that may generally really feel like a burden on a single artist to talk for an entire race or nation.
A brand new portrait of American sound has however emerged, with Montgomery’s music offering a few of the newest, essential touches.
“She’s pretty much changing the canon for American orchestras,” mentioned Afa S. Dworkin, the president and creative director of the Sphinx Organization, which promotes racial and ethnic range in music. “The true language of American classical music is something that will distinguish our canon, and she is shaping its evolution.”
Montgomery’s sound was influenced by her artistically wealthy and culturally various upbringing in New York.Credit…Tamara Blake Chapman for The New York Times
MONTGOMERY, 40, is a baby of the Lower East Side, born to creative mother and father. Her mom, Robbie McCauley, made theater that interrogated the nation’s racial historical past; her father, Edward Montgomery, ran a studio the place the younger Jessie would generally hand-operate the elevator for jazz, punk and opera musicians.
With Montgomery finding out violin in a single room; her father composing in one other; and her mom rehearsing or writing in a house studio, their house had the texture of an artist residency. “There was no routine,” Montgomery mentioned in a latest interview. “Everyone was sort of in their own modules doing their own thing. But I was always in a state of wonder.”
She was uncovered from an early age to the downtown milieu of her mother and father, whereas studying violin methods and repertoire suited to each the uptown institution and the world of improvisation.
Her instructor Alice Kanack, Montgomery recalled, “created these improvisation games with the philosophy that each child has their own individual, innate, creative voice, and that it has to be encouraged while they’re young.” Those video games supplied a pure segue to composing, which she started in earnest at 11.
By the 1990s Montgomery was a critical pupil who additionally spent her nights with mates raving in Queens to deal with music and hip-hop; there have been, she mentioned, “a lot of drugs.” But violin was one thing of a salvation for her, and she or he adopted it to the Juilliard School. (Leaving the town was by no means a query as a result of, she mentioned, “I was still in the mind-set that there’s no other place like New York.”)
Violin additionally led Montgomery to the Sphinx Organization’s annual competitors. It was the primary time she had been requested to play a bit by a Black composer.
“I lived in New York, so I was always used to having all different kinds of cultures in my friend group,” Montgomery mentioned. “So that was not unusual. But this was purely Black and Latino kids. And how we all stayed in touch and continue to collaborate with each other is really the strength of the organization.”
She has been related to Sphinx for years, performing within the Sphinx Virtuosi chamber ensemble and finally constructing a relationship that prolonged to educating on the Sphinx Performance Academy and, shortly earlier than the pandemic, being awarded the group’s medal of excellence.
“Jessie was a beautiful chamber musician from the beginning,” Dworkin mentioned. “Then she had a voice as a composer. It wasn’t until several years in that I knew there was this other side.”
There was a 3rd facet to her artistry as properly: educating. Shortly after graduating from Juilliard, she joined Community MusicWorks in Providence, R.I. — impressed partly by her personal training on the Third Street Music School Settlement in New York, and by her mom’s community-based follow.
“I use the word rigor a lot, but I think the thing that makes anything valuable is the amount of rigor, the amount of focus. The amount of energy that you’re putting into it is the thing that really counts,” she mentioned. With that guiding her, she added, “I watched kids’ lives in some cases change from really, really challenging situations to — you know, five or six of the students were the first in their family to go to college, and some of them to Ivy Leagues. It was intense, but beautiful.”
Throughout her profession, Montgomery has tried — with combined success for her sanity — to stability pedagogy with efficiency and composing. She was a founding member of the chamber group PUBLIQuartet and later joined the Catalyst Quartet.
“When Jessie joined, it felt like Catalyst became what we always envisioned it to be,” mentioned Karla Donehew Perez, a fellow violinist within the group.
Catalyst turned a sounding board for Montgomery’s writing. For the 2015 album “Strum: Music for Strings,” the group recorded a few of her most generally performed works: the spirituals-inflected “Source Code”; the vivid “Strum”; and “Banner,” which deconstructs and builds on the American nationwide anthem. With Imani Winds, the quartet additionally premiered the nonet “Sergeant McCauley,” about one in every of Montgomery’s great-grandfathers and the Great Migration.
Together, the Catalyst gamers additionally undertook main initiatives — most not too long ago, the sequence “Uncovered,” which devotes albums to composers who’ve been ignored due to their race or gender. But Montgomery felt more and more unable to commit the time the quartet wanted from her, which she described as “24/7, 365 attention.”
“That doesn’t feel balanced within the quartet,” she mentioned, “especially when they’re performing my pieces and I’m reaping the benefits of that.”
Last 12 months, Montgomery introduced her departure from Catalyst — a tough resolution that made for a tense dialog. “It’s not a fully repaired relationship,” she mentioned, “but it’s mostly repaired.” (Donehew Perez mentioned that Montgomery is sort of a member of the family to her, and stays “a great, lifelong friend.”)
Montgomery continues to carry out, together with as a part of her improvisation duo Big Dog Little Dog, with the bassist Eleonore Oppenheim. She additionally performed her music within the Pam Tanowitz dance premiere “I was waiting for the echo of a better day” this summer season and has a brand new collaborative undertaking within the works, with exploratory rehearsals starting in September.
But the majority of her work sooner or later — with commissions at the moment deliberate till 2024 — can be her writing, which with its improvisatory spirit, embrace of extensively different influences and preoccupation with private historical past displays her upbringing.
“I have this idea in my mind that there’s something beyond fusion,” Montgomery mentioned. “There’s this other sound I’m going for that is a culmination, like the smashing together, of different styles and influences. I don’t know that I’ve achieved that yet.”
Observers would possibly disagree; the composer Joan Tower described Montgomery’s music as having “a real confidence” and a mix of references that “intertwine in a cohesive way.” And Alex Hanna, the Chicago Symphony’s principal bass, famous the “richness in sonority and color” in her scores.
“You have the feeling she wrote the music in an afternoon,” he mentioned, “because it has the honesty of improvisation.”
Works like “Source Code,” “Sergeant McCauley” and the not too long ago premiered “Five Freedom Songs,” written for the soprano Julia Bullock, replicate the truth that Montgomery is “a multiracial person living and breathing and telling stories that are quintessentially American,” Dworkin mentioned.
“Banner,” she added, is a “shining” instance. “There is music in there that borrows from the Mexican anthem, Puerto Rico, blues and jazz idioms galore. That’s American music, and American history.”
But attempting to seize the soul of a rustic in music is a degree of strain that Montgomery tries to keep away from when contemplating a brand new fee. She mentioned she doesn’t see her works as notably political.
“I think people sometimes consider Blackness or a projection of Blackness as a political statement, that to be Black is to in yourself embody politics and culture,” she mentioned. “And that’s a burden, actually.”
A burden that’s been particularly acute in the course of the previous 12 months. “I’ve been talking with my colleagues of Black descent, and we’re all feeling that sort of thing of being put on,” she mentioned. “I’ve been realizing that there’s this shared desire to just be able to create without that kind of pressure or expectation that you’re going to be the spokesperson for the race or for classical music being better or more diverse or whatever.”
She wish to see programmers not simply hiring Black artists, however doing so in a considerate, versatile manner. “A commission that addresses the injustices on Black people, as a way for the institution to admit or confront their own compliance in the atrocities against Black people, doesn’t allow that composer to express total joy, for example,” she mentioned. “It boils down to the simple fact that Black people — any people, probably — want to own our own narrative, and not necessarily be put on to be responsible for undoing institutional crimes.”
In her personal music-making, Montgomery is extra concerned about supporting her friends by way of her actions — whether or not as a curator, performer or pedagogue — fairly than public statements.
“I think the work shows what you want to show,” she mentioned. “And that’s what’s important. The work comes first, and then the declarations come later.”