Organizing a museum survey of feminist artwork will be as politically fraught as organizing a ladies’s march, for a few of the identical causes. Different ladies are certain to have totally different political objectives or priorities. There are competing theoretical frameworks, from Marxist feminism, which sees capitalism as the principal supply of girls’s oppression, to the intersectional feminism so outstanding right this moment, which highlights the affect of things similar to race and sophistication on ladies’s lives. And the very notion of what it means to be a lady is quick evolving, with the rising visibility of gender-fluid, nonbinary and transgender populations.
But curators at two California museums have jumped in, organizing impartial exhibitions that, taken collectively, replicate what feminist artwork right this moment appears to be like like — and the most pressing points it appears to be like at. “I think there has never been a more relevant time to think about a new path forward for society than now, with the pandemic and social reckonings of the last year,” stated Apsara DiQuinzio, the curator of “New Time: Art and Feminisms in the 21st Century” at the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive (generally known as BAMPFA) via Jan. 30.
The present presents 140 works by 76 artists emphasizing the intersectional, inclusive and world nature of “feminisms,” plural, right this moment. “We see artists in the show focusing on issues such as equity, care, the environment and social justice,” DiQuinzio stated.
She started planning her present practically 5 years in the past in the wake of Hillary Clinton’s bid for the presidency, which was met with a wave of misogyny that also roils. Over the identical interval, two curators from the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles, Connie Butler and Anne Ellegood, developed a extra centered present referred to as “Witch Hunt” (Oct. 10-Jan. 9, 2022) that options 15 substantial initiatives — about half are new commissions — by midcareer artists Butler calls “badass” or “fierce,” including, “they all deserve major one-person shows of their own.”
The two reveals, initially a part of the 2020 Feminist Art Coalition disrupted by the pandemic, share some widespread floor. “Witch Hunt,” too, is resolutely worldwide, with artists from Mexico, Brazil and Nigeria. “Some of it was us trying to push against a strictly Western, largely white, American perspective on feminism,” Ellegood stated. “Some of it was us wanting to see these artists in dialogue together, kind of like when you curate your own fantasy dinner party.” Ellegood has since left the Hammer to run the Institute of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles throughout city, and now the ICA LA is the second venue for the present.
One artist seems in each “New Time” and “Witch Hunt”: Lara Schnitger, recognized for organizing her personal feminist marches and making sculptures for protesters to hold, similar to lingerie mounted on poles that she pointedly calls “slut sticks.” She seems in a piece of “New Time” that appears at how feminine artists use their rage as a device for social change — a theme in Butler’s catalog essay as properly.
And artists in each reveals discover points of girls’s work, with a number of making seen the so-called “invisible labor” of caregiving. For “Witch Hunt” the Stockholm-based artist Every Ocean Hughes has created a video a few “death doula” who guides the grieving in cleanse and deal with a corpse. In “New Time” the artist Rose B. Simpson, from the Santa Clara Pueblo in New Mexico, has a disjointed sculpture of herself carrying her younger daughter on her shoulders, and the two seem bodily inseparable.
Building on traditions of the ’70s, feminist artists right this moment are additionally discovering methods to acknowledge the ladies artists and activists who’ve impressed them, combating what Butler — who organized the groundbreaking feminist survey of 2007, “WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution” — calls “the erasure of women’s history.” But generally the homage is kind of delicate.Leonor Antunes double-weaves copper wire to make a dangling sculpture in “Witch Hunt” that acknowledges the modernist textile designer Trude Guermonprez. Simone Leigh in the BAMPFA present celebrates the Black feminist scholar Hortense Spillers with a bust lined with sculpted flowers rather than hair, enjoying on the Latin that means of “Hortense,” or gardener.
In the most dramatic shift from the previous, each reveals highlight L.G.B.T.Q. artists who upset gender hierarchies and binaries of their work. DiQuinzio devotes one part of “New Time” to a theme she calls “Gender Alchemy,” after a sculpture she included by the Bay Area trans artist Nicki Green that depicts totally different levels of private transformation.
“Gender alchemy was the perfect way to describe how many artists are thinking about gender today, as a shifting, mutating category, not stable or fixed,” DiQuinzio stated, calling it “a defining issue for 21st-century feminism.”
The curator included on this part nonbinary artists, cisgender ladies, transgender ladies and one man, Kalup Linzy. (A video and efficiency artist, he performs feminine and male characters in cleaning soap opera sendups like “All My Churen.”) “Feminism historically has run into really big problems when it has been exclusionary,” DiQuinzio stated.
Gender alchemy will not be after all a inflexible educational or aesthetic class however factors to one thing extra exploratory and versatile, even magical: artists transcending the strict male-female binary via fluid or hybrid imagery and, in some circumstances, seeing their supplies as fluid as properly. We talked to 4 creators from “New Time” and “Witch Hunt” who’re on this approach serving to to develop the apply of feminist artwork.
Vaginal Davis, b. Los Angeles, yr unknown; lives in Berlin (she/her)
Vaginal Davis, “Jenny Lens, Needle in the Camera’s Eye” (2021), from the collection “Unsung Superheroines” in “Witch Hunt” at ICA LA. The mixed-media piece incorporates nail polish and eye shadow and pays homage to the Los Angeles punk rock photographer Jenny Lens. Credit…Vaginal Davis
A performer and visible artist with the charisma of a talk-show host, Vaginal Davis early on took her final identify as homage to the activist Angela Davis. Her new set up “Unsung Superheroines” (2021) in “Witch Hunt” at the ICA LA celebrates dozens of lesser-known ladies who additionally influenced her: schoolteachers, punk musicians, underground vogue designers, however most of all her mom, Mary Magdalene Duplantier, who was a Black Creole lesbian.
As a single mom, she raised Davis and her sisters in South Los Angeles with an abundance of resourcefulness, an unerring sense of favor — “she was the ultimate femme who did housework in high heels and a little pearl necklace,” stated Davis — and full acceptance of her gifted daughter, who was born intersex. “Growing up, I was always being prodded and poked by these male doctors, but my mother refused to do surgery,” Davis stated.
“Witch Hunt” contains a new audio recording Davis made about her mom, together with a collection of small portraits of different ladies “who have affected my life — or infected my life with this joie de vivre and love of books and literature,” Davis stated of the work. They embrace “Lesbian Uncle Trash, who was part of my mother’s witch coven lesbian separatist group,” she stated, including that she by no means knew the actual identify of the lady, an East Coast heiress who grew to become radicalized. “I’ve tried painting men a few times, but it doesn’t come out so interesting,” she supplied.
Davis made the portraits on paper she had at hand: used stationery, postcards and envelopes. She selected make-up, a device of self-expression since she was younger, as her main artwork medium — shades of nail polish, eye shadow, eyeliner, rouge and basis. “The cheaper the makeup, the better,” she stated, praising the model Wet n Wild and an previous Britney Spears beauty line. She finishes the course of by “fixing” the paint with Aqua Net Extra Super Hold.
As for the postcards and letters, she stated that’s additionally part of her id. “I’ve been pen-palling since I was 8 years old, and back in the ’80s a lot of us were doing so-called queer zines,” she stated. “Our initial contact with each other in various cities around the world were these long, romantic letters that involved ephemera and paintings and drawings and photos. That’s a lost art.”
Nicki Green, b. Boston, 1986; lives in San Francisco (she/her)
Nicki Green painted intricate scenes on three surfaces of a glazed earthenware object in “Three States of Gender Alchemy” (2015), at BAMPFA.Credit…Nicki Green; by way of 2nd Floor Projects
Many religions incorporate ceremonial objects designed for cisgender, heterosexual women and men. But Nicki Green has been making ritual objects that replicate or have fun queer and trans our bodies, together with ceramic sculptures impressed by conventional blue-and-white pottery.
“My partner is Dutch so I’ve spent a lot of time with Dutch Delftware, where the white surface is this ideal space to illustrate,” she stated. “It’s always been used as a history recorder in a very ornate way. What I think about is: What would a blue-and-white practice look like if it were being developed and produced explicitly for queer and trans people?”
Her three-sided glazed earthenware object in “New Time” at BAMPFA, titled “Three States of Gender Alchemy” (2015), is one try and discover that query. Its three intricately painted scenes depict an individual in transition. The first panel, which she calls “external alchemy,” reveals an androgyne harvesting grains and different supplies to be remodeled bodily. Next, “internal alchemy” reveals the determine inserting fermentation vessels in a pantry. In the third panel, “spiritual alchemy,” the determine is immersed in water, attaining a state of serenity. The artist stated she is drawn to the historical past and symbolism of alchemy not simply for its give attention to transformation however as a result of it has lengthy celebrated “the nonbinary or bi-gendered body as the balanced, harmonious, enlightened being.”
Other current ceramic sculptures showcase the medium’s malleability. “Clay is a trans material to my mind,” Green stated. “It does this sort of transformation from liquid slip to plastic, moldable clay to porous but hard to vitreous, super dense, strong stone. It has this fluidity to it.”
Shu Lea Cheang, b. Taiwan, 1954; lives in Paris (she/her)
A nonetheless from Shu Lea Cheang’s “UKI Virus Rising” (2018), a three-channel sci-fi video. The panorama reveals fluid characters in a digital wasteland referred to as “e-trashville.”Credit… Shu Lea Cheang
In the early days of the web, earlier than cyberbullying and the doxxing of feminine avid gamers, our on-line world appeared to supply a gender-neutral realm, the place folks weren’t aggressively divided into female and male. The art work of Shu Lea Cheang, the Taiwan-born new media and digital arts pioneer, exposes this as a fantasy.
With “Brandon,” in 1998 — the first net art work acquired by the Guggenheim Museum — she created a web based platform and group to discover the legacy of the murdered transgender man Brandon Teena.
In the feature-length sci-fi movie “I.K.U.” (2000), from a Japanese phrase for orgasm, she envisioned a type of sexual knowledge mining by which feminine humanoid intercourse employees collected orgasm data on their inside laborious drives to profit an empire named GENOM.
In “UKI Virus Rising,” from 2018, a 10-minute video set up in “Witch Hunt” at the Hammer Museum, the characters have been deserted in a wasteland referred to as e-trashville. (It’s loosely based mostly on the artist’s visits to precise digital waste dumps in Algeria). The figures are largely androgynous, with no garments as markers and solely the hints of breasts and hips, as they stumble via the digital rubble.
“A lot of my characters are mutating all the time, quite fluid in gender,” Cheang stated. The artist, who identifies as cisgender and queer, stated that for her video “3x3x6,” which was featured in the 2019 Venice Biennale, she forged an Asian man as Casanova and a queer feminine performer as the Marquis de Sade.
Cheang additionally sees the potential for transmutation — the transformation of 1 species into one other. In “UKI Virus Rising,” one character acquires robotic arms, whereas one other has lips that morph into the gaping mouth of a fish.
“Biolabs are already experimenting with so many of these transgenic mixtures,” she mused. “I say I’m making science-fiction films, but a lot of this is already happening.”
Zanele Muholi, b. Umlazi, South Africa, 1972; lives in Umbumbulu, South Africa (they/them)
Zanele Muholi’s “Eva Mofokeng I, Parktown, Johannesburg” (2014) is from “Brave Beauties,” a photographic collection specializing in Black trans ladies.Credit…Zanele Muholi; by way of Yancey Richardson, New York
Best recognized for photographing members of the L.G.B.T.Q.I. communities in South Africa over the final twenty years, Zanele Muholi prefers to be referred to as a “visual activist,” as an alternative of “visual artist.” That activism typically takes the type of training: working artwork workshops in Umbumbulu, which throughout the pandemic grew to become an advert hoc college for youngsters caught at house.
For Muholi, who identifies as nonbinary, “feminism is not a theory but something I practice.” And taking pictures is a approach of insisting on L.G.B.T.Q.I. rights in a rustic that doesn’t do sufficient to guard them. “This is a time and place where I’ve had to attend funerals almost every month, as people have been subject to hate crimes and brutalized and killed,” Muholi stated. “It means everything I do is deeply personal.” (She additionally makes self-portraits, which throughout the pandemic took the type of work in addition to pictures.)
For the collection “Brave Beauties,” begun in 2014 and featured lately in a solo present at the Tate Modern, Muholi centered the lens on 19 Black trans ladies in Cape Town, Johannesburg and different cities, a lot of whom compete in native homosexual magnificence pageants.
“Most are survivors of different forms of violence, either abuse from the homes where they were born or hate crimes and beatings on the street,” Muholi stated. “Some have been expelled from schools.”
Instead of specializing in the ache, Muholi creates an area — typically at house — for the ladies to chill out, really feel stunning and categorical themselves, scars and all. The three pictures from “Brave Beauties” in “New Time” at BAMPFA are black-and-white, lending them a historic weight. In one, “Eva Mofokeng I, Parktown, Johannesburg,” a transgender mannequin assumes a traditional screen-siren pose blowing a kiss.
Muholi has additionally photographed the ladies having fun with a day at the public seaside, accompanied by a relative who’s a police officer. “For too long we’ve been displaced — as Black people, as queer people, as trans people,” Muholi stated. “But we don’t always need to protest. Sometimes we just need to have fun and be free.”